AIAA Journal – Fully Parabolized Hypersonic Sonic Boom Prediction with Real Gas and Viscous Effects

Abstract: We present a methodology to predict the aerodynamic near-field and sonic boom signature from slender bodies and waveriders using a fully parabolized approach. We solve the parabolized Navier–Stokes equations, which are integrated via spatial marching in the streamwise direction. We find that unique physics must be accounted for in the hypersonic regime relative to the supersonic, which includes viscous, nonequilibrium, and real gas effects. The near-field aerodynamic pressure is propagated through the atmosphere to the ground via the waveform parameter method. To illustrate the approach, three bodies are analyzed: the Sears–Haack geometry, the HIFiRE-5, and a power-law waverider. Ambient Mach numbers range from 4 through 15. The viscous stress tensor is essential for accurate hypersonic prediction. For example, viscous effects increase near-field and sonic boom overpressure by 15.7 and 8.49%, respectively, for the Sears–Haack geometry. The difference between viscous and inviscid predictions of the near-field is due to the hypersonic boundary layer. The computational cost for predicting the near-field is approximately 6.6% relative to fully nonlinear computational fluid dynamics.