Binary numbers were originally used for encryption and communication, a fact recognized as early as the 17th century by Francis Bacon. Bacon used the binary system for encoding the alphabet using strings of binary characters. This laid the framework for subsequent developments in coded communication, such as technologies like the telegraph (Samuel Morse), which relied on a binary tones of ‘dots’ and ‘dashes.’ Binary’s mathematical formulation was created by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who recognized the system’s elegance. Leibniz’s research created a formal basis for binary arithmetic, outlining methods for converting between binary, decimal, and other number systems.

References:

- Bacon, F. (1605), “The Advancement of Learning.” Book VI. London: Henrie Tomes.
- Leibniz, G.W. (1703), “Explication de l’Arithmétique Binaire.” Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, pp. 85-89. Paris.