## Binary’s Origin

Binary numbers were originally used for encryption and communication, a fact recognized as early as the 17th century by Francis Bacon. Bacon used the binary system for encoding the alphabet using strings of binary characters. This laid the framework for subsequent developments in coded communication, such as technologies like the telegraph (Samuel Morse), which relied …

## In Florida by Professor Hofmann

Recently, one of the distinguished professors of English at University of Florida published a perspective of being in Florida in the time of academic turmoil. I wish I had the command of the English language like Professor Hofmann to express myself. Please see:https://www.lrb.co.uk/blog/2024/april/in-florida

## Earth Density and Cavendish, 1798

Newton knew that the force of gravity causes falling objects near the Earth’s surface (such as the famous apple) to accelerate toward the Earth at a rate of 9.8 m/s2. He also knew that the Moon accelerated toward the Earth at a rate of 0.00272 m/s2. If it was the same force that was acting …

## Creation of Probability

On chance – Ancient civilizations, despite their engagement in games of chance and divinatory practices, did not formalize the underlying principles of probability. The creation of formal probability theory is linked with gambling and divination, stretching back to antiquity. However, the mathematical formulation of chance / probability remained elusive until the 17th century surrounding the …

## Pendulum, Time, and Stokes’

In 1582, an observation by Galileo Galilei at the Pisa Cathedral marked an important moment in understanding of oscillatory motion. Galileo, noting the constant period of a swinging lamp despite diminishing amplitude, laid the foundation for the study of pendulums. This led to his discovery that a pendulum’s oscillation period is directly proportional to the …

## Origins of Complex Numbers

The creation of complex numbers is found in the exploration of square roots of negative numbers, a notion that seemed incongruous within Euclid’s axioms and then present rules governing integers. The problem presented by the square root of negative numbers spurred a significant shift in thinking, leading to the conceptualization and acceptance of “imaginary” numbers, …

## Linear to Nonlinear Relations in Wave Science (Acoustics)

In the realm of acoustics or wave science, the transition from linear to nonlinear physics marks a significant evolution in the understanding of tones and their generation. The foundation of this understanding dates back to Pythagoras, who established a linear relationship between the length of a plucked string and the resultant musical tone. This principle …

## Hindu-Arabic Numerical System

The decimal number system, an integral part of daily life, traces its origins back to 6th-century India. Characterized by the digits zero through nine, revolutionized numerical computation and record-keeping, setting the stage for advancements in mathematics, science, and commerce. Despite its apparent simplicity and utility to the contemporary observer, the widespread adoption of this system …

## Diophantine Equations

Contributions of Diophantus of Alexandria hold a distinguished place. His seminal work, Arithmetica, unveiled in the 3rd century CE, is a key in the study of number theory, particularly in the realm of integers. This ancient text, encapsulating 130 equations, laid the foundation for what are now known as Diophantine equations—equations constrained to integer solutions. …

## An Improbable Life by D.C. Wilcox, and the $k-\omega$ Model

I just finished reading the autobiography of D. C. Wilcox. He wrote a number of books that were published through his own company. One of the most popular is on fluid dynamics. A less known book is on turbulence modeling. He was famous for a particular two-equation turbulence model in the form of $k-\omega$. It …