## Boole and Laws of Thought

George Boole, in the 1840s, proposed that variables could represent more than just numbers. Boole’s work, published in “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought” (1854), introduced algebra with two values: 1 (true) and 0 (false). Instead of traditional algebraic operations, Boolean algebra uses AND, OR, and NOT, also known as conjunction, disjunction, and complement. …

## On the Computer

Down the rabbit hole on digital calculations. Computers, as programmable tools, trace their origins to the 1800s. Joseph Jacquard’s loom, which used punched cards for pattern storage, indirectly influenced the field (1800s). C. Babbage, inspired by the loom, built the Difference Engine in 1822 for mathematical calculations and later designed the Analytical Engine, the first …

## Backus on IBM / Fortran

Much of my work has come from being lazy. I didn’t like writing programs, and so, when I was working on the IBM 701, writing programs for computing missile trajectories, I started work on a programming system to make it easier to write programs. John Backus, 1979, Interview IBM Think Magazine

## Saffman $$k-\omega^2$$

Saffman’s $$k-\omega^2$$ turbulence model, initiated by Saffman’s research, plays a role in the two-equation models dedicated to turbulence research since the time of Kolmogorov in the 1940’s. The basics of Saffman’s model is shown in the portrayal of a statistically steady or ‘slowly varying’ inhomogeneous turbulence field alongside the mean velocity distribution. This model states …

## Returning to Ludwig Prandtl’s One-Equation Model

In my turbulence class this semester, I recently reviewed Prandtl’s one-equation model, which was developed over 20 years since the time of boundary theory in the early 1900s. The major paper by Ludwig Prandtl was published in the early 1940s. He presented the first one-equation turbulence model for the closure of the boundary layer equations, …

## Additional Thoughts on Half-Equation Model of Johnson and King

The Johnson King turbulence model represented a significant advancement in the understanding and modeling of turbulent flows. Introduced amidst the exploration of first and second equation models, the Johnson King model distinguished itself through the innovative concept of a half-equation model, emphasizing the critical role of memory in turbulence phenomena. The early stages of turbulence …

## An Improbable Life by D.C. Wilcox, and the $k-\omega$ Model

I just finished reading the autobiography of D. C. Wilcox. He wrote a number of books that were published through his own company. One of the most popular is on fluid dynamics. A less known book is on turbulence modeling. He was famous for a particular two-equation turbulence model in the form of $k-\omega$. It …

## Toward Exascale Computation for Turbomachinery Flows

Citation: Yuhang Fu, Weiqi Shen, Jiahuan Cui, Yao Zheng, Guangwen Yang, Zhao Liu, Jifa Zhang, Tingwei Ji, Fangfang Xie, Xiaojing Lv, Hanyue Liu, Xu Liu, Xiyang Liu, Xiaoyu Song, Guocheng Tao, Yan Yan, Paul Tucker, Steven Miller, Shirui Luo, Seid Koric, and Weimin Zheng, “Toward Exascale Computation for Turbomachinery Flows,” Gordon Bell, High Performance Computing, …

## AIAA Paper: Fully-Parabolized Prediction of Hypersonic Sonic Boom

Abstract: Hypersonic flight-vehicles create shock and expansion waves that propagate through the atmosphere and are observed on the ground as sonic booms. We present a methodology to predict the near-field aerodynamic pressure and sonic boom signature using approximately 1% of the computational cost relative to fully-nonlinear computational fluid dynamics and state-ofthe-art sonic boom propagation solvers. …

## A simplified semi-empirical model for long-range low-frequency noise propagation in the turbulent atmosphere

My student, Dr. Tianshu Zhang, and myself recently published a modified long range acoustic propagation model that handles turbulence in the atmosphere. The abstract is We present a semi-empirical long-range low-frequency acoustic propagation model, which accounts for atmospheric turbulence. Ostashev and Wilson’s scattering model is combined with a ray-theory based refraction model to account for …