Because an effort is likely impossible and impractical does not mean it is not worth attempting. The Navier-Stokes equations and turbulent flow represent the last great classical problem in physics. Since the time of Leonard Euler and Jean-Baptiste le Rond d’Alembert, many have devoted much of their lives to working on these problems. Although they …

# Category Archives: Turbulence

## Rodi and Algebraic Stress Models

Rodi examined nonlinear algebraic stress models by approximating the convective transport terms of the Reynolds stress tensor and normalizing Reynolds stress with turbulent kinetic energy, coupled with a transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy. This approach simplifies the Reynolds stress transport terms, resulting in an algebraic equation essential for determining the Reynolds stress tensor. This …

## Saffman \(k-\omega^2\)

Saffman’s \(k-\omega^2\) turbulence model, initiated by Saffman’s research, plays a role in the two-equation models dedicated to turbulence research since the time of Kolmogorov in the 1940’s. The basics of Saffman’s model is shown in the portrayal of a statistically steady or ‘slowly varying’ inhomogeneous turbulence field alongside the mean velocity distribution. This model states …

## Baldwin Barth One-Equation Model Reviewed

During the present semester, I reexamined the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model. This model constitutes a reformulation of the $k$ and $\epsilon$ equations, culminating in a single partial differential equation for the turbulent eddy viscosity, denoted as $\nu_t$, multiplied by the turbulent Reynolds number, $Re_t$. The model’s closure for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was a …

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## Reflections on Spalart-Allmarus Turbulence Model, 2024

The Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, a one-equation turbulence model, was a response to the inadequacies observed in zero-equation models, particularly their lack of predictive accuracy in complex flow scenarios such as wakes, shear layers, and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The creation of the Spalart-Allmaras model was influenced by multiple prior works, including the Baldwin Barth …

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## Returning to Ludwig Prandtl’s One-Equation Model

In my turbulence class this semester, I recently reviewed Prandtl’s one-equation model, which was developed over 20 years since the time of boundary theory in the early 1900s. The major paper by Ludwig Prandtl was published in the early 1940s. He presented the first one-equation turbulence model for the closure of the boundary layer equations, …

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## Additional Thoughts on Half-Equation Model of Johnson and King

The Johnson King turbulence model represented a significant advancement in the understanding and modeling of turbulent flows. Introduced amidst the exploration of first and second equation models, the Johnson King model distinguished itself through the innovative concept of a half-equation model, emphasizing the critical role of memory in turbulence phenomena. The early stages of turbulence …

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## An Improbable Life by D.C. Wilcox, and the $k-\omega$ Model

I just finished reading the autobiography of D. C. Wilcox. He wrote a number of books that were published through his own company. One of the most popular is on fluid dynamics. A less known book is on turbulence modeling. He was famous for a particular two-equation turbulence model in the form of $k-\omega$. It …

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## Remembering Professor Olga Alexandrovna Ladyzhenskaya Twenty Years On

It has been approximately twenty years since Professor Olga Alexandrovna Ladyzhenskaya passed away. An eminent mathematician and member of several Academies of Science, passed away in January 2004. Her distinguished career was marked by significant contributions to partial differential equations, particularly the Navier–Stokes equations and nonlinear elliptic and parabolic equations. Born in 1922 in Kologriv, …

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## Analytical Closed-Form Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations for the Aerodynamic Near-field and Sonic Boom from Axisymmetric Bodies

I completed my Acoustical Society work and returned to the United States. Abstract: An analytical closed-form solution is presented for the aerodynamic near-field and ground signature from an axisymmetric body with a low thickness ratio. The Navier-Stokes equations are formulated as a boundary value problem that incorporates the incoming ambient flow-field and the aerodynamic properties …