Removal of Tenure at the University of Florida

A university cannot exist without academic freedom. Academic freedom is the core value under which American universities have operated for nearly the last century. It is outlined in multiple works, including the Chicago Principles and by the American Association of University Professors. Academic freedom is protected by the tenure system. Tenure, which was popularized in …

Binary’s Origin

Binary numbers were originally used for encryption and communication, a fact recognized as early as the 17th century by Francis Bacon. Bacon used the binary system for encoding the alphabet using strings of binary characters. This laid the framework for subsequent developments in coded communication, such as technologies like the telegraph (Samuel Morse), which relied …

Rodi and Algebraic Stress Models

Rodi examined nonlinear algebraic stress models by approximating the convective transport terms of the Reynolds stress tensor and normalizing Reynolds stress with turbulent kinetic energy, coupled with a transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy. This approach simplifies the Reynolds stress transport terms, resulting in an algebraic equation essential for determining the Reynolds stress tensor. This …

Creation of Probability

On chance – Ancient civilizations, despite their engagement in games of chance and divinatory practices, did not formalize the underlying principles of probability. The creation of formal probability theory is linked with gambling and divination, stretching back to antiquity. However, the mathematical formulation of chance / probability remained elusive until the 17th century surrounding the …

Saffman $k-\omega^2$

Saffman’s $k-\omega^2$ turbulence model, initiated by Saffman’s research, plays a role in the two-equation models dedicated to turbulence research since the time of Kolmogorov in the 1940’s. The basics of Saffman’s model is shown in the portrayal of a statistically steady or ‘slowly varying’ inhomogeneous turbulence field alongside the mean velocity distribution. This model states …

Baldwin Barth One-Equation Model Reviewed

During the present semester, I reexamined the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model. This model constitutes a reformulation of the $k$ and $\epsilon$ equations, culminating in a single partial differential equation for the turbulent eddy viscosity, denoted as $\nu_t$, multiplied by the turbulent Reynolds number, $Re_t$. The model’s closure for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was a …

Reflections on Spalart-Allmarus Turbulence Model, 2024

The Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, a one-equation turbulence model, was a response to the inadequacies observed in zero-equation models, particularly their lack of predictive accuracy in complex flow scenarios such as wakes, shear layers, and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The creation of the Spalart-Allmaras model was influenced by multiple prior works, including the Baldwin Barth …

AIAA Journal – Fully Parabolized Hypersonic Sonic Boom Prediction with Real Gas and Viscous Effects

https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J063425 Abstract: We present a methodology to predict the aerodynamic near-field and sonic boom signature from slender bodies and waveriders using a fully parabolized approach. We solve the parabolized Navier–Stokes equations, which are integrated via spatial marching in the streamwise direction. We find that unique physics must be accounted for in the hypersonic regime relative …